X-gal staining of electroporated sea squirt (Ciona) embryos

Lionel Christiaen, Eileen Wagner, Weiyang Shi, Michael Levine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This protocol describes the fixation, staining, and mounting of sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) embryos and larvae that have been electroporated with a plasmid DNA containing a cis-regulatory DNA (e.g., tissue-specific enhancer) fused to the lacZ reporter gene. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes can be directly visualized in living embryos and larvae, although fixed preparations can use aspects of this protocol.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCold Spring Harbor Protocols
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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