What are tethering elements?

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High-resolution Micro-C maps identified a specialized class of regulatory DNAs termed ‘tethering elements’ (TEs) in Drosophila. These 300–500-bp elements facilitate specific long-range genomic associations or loops. The POZ-containing transcription factor GAF (GAGA-associated factor) contributes to loop formation. Tether–tether interactions accelerate Hox gene activation by distal enhancers, and coordinate transcription of duplicated genes (paralogs) through promoter–promoter associations. Some TEs engage in ultra-long-range enhancer–promoter and promoter–promoter interactions (meta-loops) in the Drosophila brain. We discuss the basis for tether–tether specificity and speculate on the occurrence of similar elements in vertebrate genomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102151
JournalCurrent Opinion in Genetics and Development
StatePublished - Feb 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics
  • Developmental Biology


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