Wafer-scale nanopatterning and translation into high-performance piezoelectric nanowires

Thanh D. Nguyen, John M. Nagarah, Yi Qi, Stephen S. Nonnenmann, Anatoli V. Morozov, Simonne Li, Craig B. Arnold, Michael C. McAlpine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


The development of a facile method for fabricating one-dimensional, precisely positioned nanostructures over large areas offers exciting opportunities in fundamental research and innovative applications. Large-scale nanofabrication methods have been restricted in accessibility due to their complexity and cost. Likewise, bottom-up synthesis of nanowires has been limited in methods to assemble these structures at precisely defined locations. Nanomaterials such as PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) nanowires (NWs)-which may be useful for nonvolatile memory storage (FeRAM), nanoactuation, and nanoscale power generation-are difficult to synthesize without suffering from polycrystallinity or poor stoichiometric control. Here, we report a novel fabrication method which requires only low-resolution photolithography and electrochemical etching to generate ultrasmooth NWs over wafer scales. These nanostructures are subsequently used as patterning templates to generate PZT nanowires with the highest reported piezoelectric performance (deff ∼ 145 pm/V). The combined large-scale nanopatterning with hierarchical assembly of functional nanomaterials could yield breakthroughs in areas ranging from nanodevice arrays to nanodevice powering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4595-4599
Number of pages5
JournalNano Letters
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 10 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Bioengineering
  • General Materials Science


  • Nanomanufacturing
  • energy conversion
  • laser annealing
  • piezoelectric nanowires


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