We investigate experimentally the steady flows in a cylinder containing two immiscible liquids, with the primary fluid being driven by the upper boundary rotating at constant speeds. The system exhibits interesting interplays between the flow fields and the morphology of the interface, with evidence showing that the remarkable flattop structure is a consequence of the vortex breakdown discovered decades ago, and that the deformability of the interface also feedbacks positively to the development of the vortices. Monitoring the topological structure of the flow fields defines the base states and transitions behind the morphology, whereas our survey over different aspect ratios also reveals rich phenomena of surface instabilities accompanying these steady states.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics|
|State||Published - Sep 4 2015|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Condensed Matter Physics