Vertical Stacked LEGO-PoL CPU Voltage Regulator

Jaeil Baek, Youssef Elasser, Kaladhar Radhakrishnan, Houle Gan, Jonathan P. Douglas, Harish K. Krishnamurthy, Xin Li, Shuai Jiang, Charles R. Sullivan, Minjie Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


This article presents a 48-1 V merged-two-stage hybrid-switched-capacitor converter with a linear extendable group operated point-of-load (LEGO-PoL) architecture for ultrahigh-current microprocessors, featuring 3-D stacked packaging and coupled inductors for miniaturized size, fast speed, and vertical power delivery. The architecture is highly modular and scalable. The switched-capacitor circuits are connected in series on the input side to split the high input voltage into multiple stacked voltage domains. The multiphase buck circuits are connected in parallel to distribute the high output current into multiple parallel current paths. It leverages the advantages of switched-capacitor circuits and multiphase buck circuits to achieve soft charging, current sharing, and voltage balancing. The inductors of the multiphase buck converters are used as current sources to soft-charge and soft-switch the switched-capacitor circuits, and the switched-capacitor circuits are utilized to ensure current sharing among the multiphase buck circuits. A 780-A vertical stacked CPU voltage regulator with a peak efficiency of 91.1% and a full load efficiency of 79.2% at an output voltage of 1 V with liquid cooling is built and tested. The switched capacitor circuits operate at 286 kHz and the buck circuits operate at 1 MHz. It regulates output voltage between 0.8 and 1.5 V through the entire 780-A current range. This is the first demonstration of a 48-1 V CPU voltage regulator to achieve over 1-A/mm\text{2} current density and the first to achieve 1000-W/in3 power density.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6305-6322
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Coupled inductor
  • dcâdc power conversion
  • hybrid switched-capacitor circuit
  • series-inputâparallel-output architecture
  • vertical power delivery
  • voltage regulator


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