Varieties of (de) humanization: divided by competition and status.

Susan T. Fiske

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Recognizing or denying another's humanity varies predictably along apparently universal dimensions of the other's perceived warmth (trustworthiness) and competence. New data reveal distinct neural and behavioral signatures of (de)humanizing responses to distinct kinds of ingroups and outgroups on these dimensions. The most dehumanized outgroups (low on both warmth and competence) elicit disgust and avoidance, devalued as literally worth-less. In contrast, groups disliked for seeming cold but respected for competence elicit envy and Schadenfreude. Reactions to pitied outgroups--disrespected for seeming incompetent, but apparently likable enough for seeming trustworthy and warm--focus on prescriptions for their behavior. The humanization of ingroup members, who are both liked and respected, reflects individuating processes in impression formation, not necessarily accurate but at least three-dimensionally human.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53-71
Number of pages19
JournalNebraska Symposium on Motivation. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation
StatePublished - Sep 17 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology


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