Varieties of (de) humanization: Divided by competition and status

Susan T. Fiske

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

32 Scopus citations


Recognizing or denying another's humanity varies predictably along apparently universal dimensions of the other's perceived warmth (trustworthiness) and competence. New data reveal distinct neural and behavioral signatures of (de)humanizing responses to distinct kinds of ingroups and outgroups on these dimensions. The most dehumanized outgroups (low on both warmth and competence) elicit disgust and avoidance, devalued as literally worth-less. In contrast, groups disliked for seeming cold but respected for competence elicit envy and Schadenfreude. Reactions to pitied outgroups - disrespected for seeming incompetent, but apparently likable enough for seeming trustworthy and warm - focus on prescriptions for their behavior. The humanization of ingroup members, who are both liked and respected, reflects individuating processes in impression formation, not necessarily accurate but at least three-dimensionally human.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationObjectification and (De)Humanization
Subtitle of host publication60th Nebraska Symposium on Motivation
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media, LLC
Number of pages19
ISBN (Print)9781461469582
StatePublished - 2013

Publication series

NameNebraska Symposium on Motivation
ISSN (Print)0146-7875

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology


  • Ambivalent stereotypes
  • Competence
  • Competition
  • Dehumanization
  • Outgroups
  • Prejudices
  • Status
  • Stereotype content model
  • Warmth


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