Variational formulation of the Gardner's restacking algorithm

I. Y. Dodin, N. J. Fisch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


The incompressibility of the phase flow of Hamiltonian wave-plasma interactions restricts the class of realizable wave-driven transformations of the particle distribution. After the interaction, the distribution remains composed of the original phase-space elements, or local densities, which are only rearranged ("restacked") by the wave. A variational formalism is developed to study the corresponding limitations on the energy and momentum transfer. A case of particular interest is a toroidal plasma immersed in a dc magnetic field. The restacking algorithm by Gardner [Phys. Fluids 6 (1963) 839] is formulated precisely. The minimum energy state for a plasma with a given current is determined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-192
Number of pages6
JournalPhysics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics
Issue number1-4
StatePublished - Jun 20 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


  • Distribution function
  • Phase-space restacking
  • Wave-plasma interaction


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