Traditional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can inappropriately indicate the presence of two or more oxidation states for metal(s) in certain polycrystalline phase pure metal-oxides. We attribute this behavior to differential charging of samples. By employing an external bias, DC or AC, to the sample holder during spectral acquisition, we were able to minimize charging effects and determine properties dependent on grain/grain and substrate/grain interactions of complex composite polycrystalline materials.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Chemistry
- General Chemical Engineering
- Materials Chemistry