Urban primate ranging patterns: GPS-collar deployments for Macaca fascicularis and M. sylvanus

Amy R. Klegarth, Hope Hollocher, Lisa Jones-Engel, Eric Shaw, Benjamin P.Y.H. Lee, Tessa Feeney, Damian Holmes, Dale Laguea, Agustín Fuentes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The global increase in urbanization is leading to heavier interface between humans and wildlife. Within these anthropogenic landscapes, little is known about ranging patterns, particularly with regard to urban primates. Here we present the results of the first long-term deployment of multiple GPS collars on two species of macaques to investigate the impacts of urbanization on urban primate ranging patterns in Singapore and Gibraltar. Collars data acquisition were excellent with respect to the amount, quality, and accuracy of data collected; however, remote connectivity and drop-off functionality was poor across all deployments. Analyses highlighted high variability in ranging patterns between individuals within each species that aligned with access to human food resources and patterns of tourism. Individuals from troops with less access to human food had much larger home, core, and day ranges relative to those with regular provisioning or raiding opportunities. Almost no temporal range overlap was observed between any focal individuals at either site and spatial overlap was low for all but two troops at each site. We found no relationship between anthropogenic schedules and changes in ranging patterns. Significant seasonal variation existed for daily path length and day range size for both the Singapore long-tailed and the Gibraltar Barbary macaques, with long-tailed macaques increasing their range during the equatorial monsoon season and Barbary macaques increasing their range during drier, summer months. This study highlights how the behavioral plasticity found within the genus Macaca is reflected in ranging pattern variability within urban environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere22633
JournalAmerican Journal of Primatology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2017
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology


  • GPS telemetry
  • Macaca
  • global positioning system
  • spatial ecology
  • urban ecology


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