We present a bifurcation study of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a model complex geometry: a spatially periodic array of cylinders in a channel. The dynamics of the flow include a Hopf bifurcation from steady to oscillatory flow at an approximate Reynolds number R of 350 and the appearance of a second frequency at approximately R ≃ 890. The multiple frequency dynamics include a substantial increase in spatial and temporal scales with Reynolds number as compared with the simple limit cycle oscillation present close to R = 350. Numerical bifurcation studies of the dynamics are performed using three forms of global eigenfunction expansions. The first basis set is derived through principal factor analysis (Karhunen-Loève expansion) of snapshots from accurate direct spectral element numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. The second set is obtained from the eigenfunctions of the Stokes operator for this geometry. Finally eigenfunctions are derived from a singular Stokes operator, i.e., the Stokes operator modified to include a variable coefficient which vanishes at the domain boundaries. Truncated systems of (∼ 100) ODEs are obtained through projection of the Navier-Stokes equations onto the basis sets, and a comparative study of the resulting dynamical models is performed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computational Mathematics
- Applied Mathematics
- Eigenfunction expansions
- Galerkin method