Unravelling the operation of organic artificial neurons for neuromorphic bioelectronics

Pietro Belleri, Judith Pons i Tarrés, Iain McCulloch, Paul W.M. Blom, Zsolt M. Kovács-Vajna, Paschalis Gkoupidenis, Fabrizio Torricelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Organic artificial neurons operating in liquid environments are crucial components in neuromorphic bioelectronics. However, the current understanding of these neurons is limited, hindering their rational design and development for realistic neuronal emulation in biological settings. Here we combine experiments, numerical non-linear simulations, and analytical tools to unravel the operation of organic artificial neurons. This comprehensive approach elucidates a broad spectrum of biorealistic behaviors, including firing properties, excitability, wetware operation, and biohybrid integration. The non-linear simulations are grounded in a physics-based framework, accounting for ion type and ion concentration in the electrolytic medium, organic mixed ionic-electronic parameters, and biomembrane features. The derived analytical expressions link the neurons spiking features with material and physical parameters, bridging closer the domains of artificial neurons and neuroscience. This work provides streamlined and transferable guidelines for the design, development, engineering, and optimization of organic artificial neurons, advancing next generation neuronal networks, neuromorphic electronics, and bioelectronics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5350
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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