Unitarity of Symplectic Fermions in α Vacua with Negative Central Charge

Shinsei Ryu, Junggi Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We study the two-dimensional free symplectic fermion theory with antiperiodic boundary condition. This model has negative norm states with a naive inner product. This negative norm problem can be cured by introducing a new inner product. We demonstrate that this new inner product follows from the connection between the path integral formalism and the operator formalism. This model has a negative central charge, c=-2, and we clarify how two-dimensional conformal field theory with negative central charge can have a non-negative norm. Furthermore, we introduce α vacua in which the Hamiltonian is seemingly non-Hermitian. In spite of non-Hermiticity, we find that the energy spectrum is real. We also compare a correlation function with respect to the α vacua with that of the de Sitter space.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number241602
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number24
StatePublished - Jun 16 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


Dive into the research topics of 'Unitarity of Symplectic Fermions in α Vacua with Negative Central Charge'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this