Understanding cool flames and warm flames

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62 Scopus citations


Low-temperature flames such as cool flames, warm flames, double flames, and auto-ignition assisted flames play a critical role in the performance of advanced engines and fuel design. In this paper, an overview of the recent progresses in understanding low-temperature flames and dynamics as well as their impacts on combustion, advanced engines, and fuel development will be presented. Specifically, at first, a brief review of the history of cool flames is made. Then, the recent experimental studies and computational modeling of the flame structures, dynamics, and burning limits of non-premixed and premixed cool flames, warm flames, and double flames are presented. The flammability limit diagram and the temperature-dependent chain-branching reaction pathways, respectively, for hot, warm, and cool flames at elevated temperature and pressure will be discussed and analyzed. After that, the effect of low temperature auto-ignition of auto-igniting mixtures at high ignition Damköhler numbers at engine conditions on the propagation of cool flames, warm flames, and double flames as well as turbulent flames will be discussed. Finally, a new platform using low temperature flames for the development and validation of chemical kinetic models of alternative fuels will be presented. Discussions of future research of the dynamics and control of low temperature flames under engine conditions will be made.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)83-119
Number of pages37
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021
Event38th International Symposium on Combustion, 2021 - Adelaide, Australia
Duration: Jan 24 2021Jan 29 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


  • Auto-ignition assisted flames
  • Cool flames
  • Double flames
  • Low temperature combustion
  • Warm flames


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