Twisted bilayer graphene as topological heavy fermion: II. Analytical approximations of the model parameters

Dumitru Călugăru, Maksim Borovkov, Liam L.H. Lau, Piers Coleman, Zhi Da Song, B. Andrei Bernevig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The recently-introduced topological heavy fermion (THF) model [1] of twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) aims to reconcile the quantum-dot-like electronic structure of the latter observed by scanning tunneling microscopy, with its electron delocalization seen in transport measurements. The THF model achieves this by coupling localized (heavy) fermions with anomalous conduction electrons. Originally, the parameters of the THF model were obtained numerically from the Bistritzer–Macdonald (BM) model of TBG [1]. In this work, we derive analytical expressions for the THF model parameters as a function of the twist angle, the ratio between the tunneling amplitudes at the AA and AB regions (w0/w1), and the screening length of the interaction potential. By numerically computing the THF model parameters across an extensive experimentally-relevant parameter space, we show that the resulting approximations are remarkably good, i.e., within the 30% relative error for almost the entire parameter space. At the single-particle level, the THF model accurately captures the energy spectrum of the BM model over a large phase space of angles and tunneling amplitude ratios. When interactions are included, we also show that the THF description of TBG is good around the magic angle for realistic values of the tunneling amplitude ratios (0.6 ≤ w0/w1 ≤ 1.0), for which the hybridization between the localized and conduction fermions γ is smaller than the onsite repulsion of the heavy fermions U1 (i.e., |γ| < U1).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)703-719
Number of pages17
JournalFizika Nizkikh Temperatur
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


  • Bistritzer–Macdonald model
  • anomalous conduction electrons
  • localized fermions
  • topological heavy fermion model
  • twisted bilayer graphene


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