We report on experiments and modeling on a rotating confined liquid that is forced by circumferential jets coaxial with the rotation axis, wherein system-scale secondary flows are observed to emerge. The jets are evenly divided in number between inlets and outlets and have zero net mass transport. For low forcing strengths the sign of this flow depends on the sign of a sloped end cap, which simulates a planetary β plane. For increased forcing strengths the secondary flow direction is insensitive to the slope sign, and instead appears to be dominated by an asymmetry in the forcing mechanism, namely, the difference in radial divergence between the inlet and outlet jet profiles. This asymmetry yields a net radial velocity that is affected by the Coriolis force, inducing secondary zonal flow.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Condensed Matter Physics