Entanglement is a defining feature of quantum mechanics that can be a resource in engineered and natural systems, but measuring entanglement in experiment remains elusive especially for large chemical systems. Most practical approaches require determining and measuring a suitable entanglement witness which provides some level of information about the entanglement structure of the probed state. A fundamental quantity of quantum metrology is the quantum Fisher information (QFI), which is a rigorous witness of multipartite entanglement that can be evaluated from linear response functions for certain states. In this paper, we explore measuring the QFI of molecular exciton states of the first-excitation subspace from spectroscopy. In particular, we utilize the fact that the linear response of a pure state subject to a weak electric field over all possible driving frequencies encodes the variance of the collective dipole moment in the probed state, which is a valid measure for QFI. The systems that are investigated include the molecular dimer, N-site linear aggregate with nearest-neighbor coupling, and N-site circular aggregate, all modeled as a collection of interacting qubits. Our theoretical analysis shows that the variance of the collective dipole moment in the brightest dipole-allowed eigenstate is the maximum QFI. The optical response of a thermally equilibrated state in the first-excitation subspace is also a valid QFI. Theoretical predictions of the measured QFI for realistic linear dye aggregates as a function of temperature and energetic disorder due to static variations of the host matrix show that two- to three-partite entanglement is realizable. This paper lays some groundwork and inspires measurement of multipartite entanglement of molecular excitons with ultrafast pump-probe experiments.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics