Toward Efficient Agnostic Learning

Michael J. Kearns, Robert E. Schapire, Linda M. Sellie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

304 Scopus citations


In this paper we initiate an investigation of generalizations of the Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) learning model that attempt to significantly weaken the target function assumptions. The ultimate goal in this direction is informally termed agnostic learning, in which we make virtually no assumptions on the target function. The name derives from the fact that as designers of learning algorithms, we give up the belief that Nature (as represented by the target function) has a simple or succinct explanation. We give a number of positive and negative results that provide an initial outline of the possibilities for agnostic learning. Our results include hardness results for the most obvious generalization of the PAC model to an agnostic setting, an efficient and general agnostic learning method based on dynamic programming, relationships between loss functions for agnostic learning, and an algorithm for a learning problem that involves hidden variables.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)115-141
Number of pages27
JournalMachine Learning
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1994
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Artificial Intelligence


  • PAC learning
  • agnostic learning
  • computational learning theory
  • machine learning


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