Toward a Rational and Mechanistic Account of Mental Effort

Amitai Shenhav, Sebastian Musslick, Falk Lieder, Wouter Kool, Thomas L. Griffiths, Jonathan D. Cohen, Matthew M. Botvinick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

181 Scopus citations

Abstract

In spite of its familiar phenomenology, the mechanistic basis for mental effort remains poorly understood. Although most researchers agree that mental effort is aversive and stems from limitations in our capacity to exercise cognitive control, it is unclear what gives rise to those limitations and why they result in an experience of control as costly. The presence of these control costs also raises further questions regarding how best to allocate mental effort to minimize those costs and maximize the attendant benefits. This review explores recent advances in computational modeling and empirical research aimed at addressing these questions at the level of psychological process and neural mechanism, examining both the limitations to mental effort exertion and how we manage those limited cognitive resources. We conclude by identifying remaining challenges for theoretical accounts of mental effort as well as possible applications of the available findings to understanding the causes of and potential solutions for apparent failures to exert the mental effort required of us.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)99-124
Number of pages26
JournalAnnual Review of Neuroscience
Volume40
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 25 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)

Keywords

  • Cognitive control
  • Decision making
  • Executive function
  • Motivation
  • Prefrontal cortex
  • Reward

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Toward a Rational and Mechanistic Account of Mental Effort'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this