TOI-1136 is a Young, Coplanar, Aligned Planetary System in a Pristine Resonant Chain

Fei Dai, Kento Masuda, Corey Beard, Paul Robertson, Max Goldberg, Konstantin Batygin, Luke Bouma, Jack J. Lissauer, Emil Knudstrup, Simon Albrecht, Andrew W. Howard, Heather A. Knutson, Erik A. Petigura, Lauren M. Weiss, Howard Isaacson, Martti Holst Kristiansen, Hugh Osborn, Songhu Wang, Xian Yu Wang, Aida BehmardMichael Greklek-McKeon, Shreyas Vissapragada, Natalie M. Batalha, Casey L. Brinkman, Ashley Chontos, Ian Crossfield, Courtney Dressing, Tara Fetherolf, Benjamin Fulton, Michelle L. Hill, Daniel Huber, Stephen R. Kane, Jack Lubin, Mason MacDougall, Andrew Mayo, Teo Močnik, Joseph M. Akana Murphy, Ryan A. Rubenzahl, Nicholas Scarsdale, Dakotah Tyler, Judah Van Zandt, Alex S. Polanski, Hans Martin Schwengeler, Ivan A. Terentev, Paul Benni, Allyson Bieryla, David Ciardi, Ben Falk, E. Furlan, Eric Girardin, Pere Guerra, Katharine M. Hesse, Steve B. Howell, J. Lillo-Box, Elisabeth C. Matthews, Joseph D. Twicken, Joel Villaseñor, David W. Latham, Jon M. Jenkins, George R. Ricker, Sara Seager, Roland Vanderspek, Joshua N. Winn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Convergent disk migration has long been suspected to be responsible for forming planetary systems with a chain of mean-motion resonances (MMRs). Dynamical evolution over time could disrupt the delicate resonant configuration. We present TOI-1136, a 700 ± 150 Myr old G star hosting at least six transiting planets between ∼2 and 5 R . The orbital period ratios deviate from exact commensurability by only 10−4, smaller than the ∼10−2 deviations seen in typical Kepler near-resonant systems. A transit-timing analysis measured the masses of the planets (3-8M ) and demonstrated that the planets in TOI-1136 are in true resonances with librating resonant angles. Based on a Rossiter-McLaughlin measurement of planet d, the star’s rotation appears to be aligned with the planetary orbital planes. The well-aligned planetary system and the lack of a detected binary companion together suggest that TOI-1136's resonant chain formed in an isolated, quiescent disk with no stellar flyby, disk warp, or significant axial asymmetry. With period ratios near 3:2, 2:1, 3:2, 7:5, and 3:2, TOI-1136 is the first known resonant chain involving a second-order MMR (7:5) between two first-order MMRs. The formation of the delicate 7:5 resonance places strong constraints on the system’s migration history. Short-scale (starting from ∼0.1 au) Type-I migration with an inner disk edge is most consistent with the formation of TOI-1136. A low disk surface density (Σ1 au ≲ 103g cm−2; lower than the minimum-mass solar nebula) and the resultant slower migration rate likely facilitated the formation of the 7:5 second-order MMR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number33
JournalAstronomical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


Dive into the research topics of 'TOI-1136 is a Young, Coplanar, Aligned Planetary System in a Pristine Resonant Chain'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this