TOI-1130: A photodynamical analysis of a hot Jupiter in resonance with an inner low-mass planet

J. Korth, D. Gandolfi, J. Šubjak, S. Howard, S. Ataiee, K. A. Collins, S. N. Quinn, A. J. Mustill, T. Guillot, N. Lodieu, A. M.S. Smith, M. Esposito, F. Rodler, A. Muresan, L. Abe, S. H. Albrecht, A. Alqasim, K. Barkaoui, P. G. Beck, C. J. BurkeR. P. Butler, D. M. Conti, K. I. Collins, J. D. Crane, F. Dai, H. J. Deeg, P. Evans, S. Grziwa, A. P. Hatzes, T. Hirano, K. Horne, C. X. Huang, J. M. Jenkins, P. Kabáth, J. F. Kielkopf, E. Knudstrup, D. W. Latham, J. Livingston, R. Luque, S. Mathur, F. Murgas, H. L.M. Osborne, E. Palle, C. M. Persson, J. E. Rodriguez, M. Rose, P. Rowden, R. P. Schwarz, S. Seager, L. M. Serrano, L. Sha, S. A. Shectman, A. Shporer, G. Srdoc, C. Stockdale, T. G. Tan, J. K. Teske, V. Van Eylen, A. Vanderburg, R. Vanderspek, S. X. Wang, J. N. Winn

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The TOI-1130 is a known planetary system around a K-dwarf consisting of a gas giant planet, TOI-1130 c on an 8.4-day orbit that is accompanied by an inner Neptune-sized planet, TOI-1130 b, with an orbital period of 4.1 days. We collected precise radial velocity (RV) measurements of TOI-1130 with the HARPS and PFS spectrographs as part of our ongoing RV follow-up program. We performed a photodynamical modeling of the HARPS and PFS RVs, along with transit photometry from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and the TESS Follow-up Observing Program (TFOP). We determined the planet masses and radii of TOI-1130 b and TOI-1130 c to be Mb = 19.28 ± 0.97M⊕ and Rb = 3.56 ± 0.13 R⊕, and Mc = 325.59 ± 5.59M⊕ and Rc = 13.32-1.41+1.55 R⊕, respectively. We have spectroscopically confirmed the existence of TOI-1130 b, which had previously only been validated. We find that the two planets have orbits with small eccentricities in a 2:1 resonant configuration. This is the first known system with a hot Jupiter and an inner lower mass planet locked in a mean-motion resonance. TOI-1130 belongs to the small, yet growing population of hot Jupiters with an inner low-mass planet that poses a challenge to the pathway scenario for hot Jupiter formation. We also detected a linear RV trend that is possibly due to the presence of an outer massive companion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA115
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
StatePublished - Jul 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Planetary systems
  • Planets and satellites: individual: TOI-1130
  • Techniques: photometric
  • Techniques: radial velocities


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