TOI-1075 b: A Dense, Massive, Ultra-short-period Hot Super-Earth Straddling the Radius Gap

Zahra Essack, Avi Shporer, Jennifer A. Burt, Sara Seager, Saverio Cambioni, Zifan Lin, Karen A. Collins, Eric E. Mamajek, Keivan G. Stassun, George R. Ricker, Roland Vanderspek, David W. Latham, Joshua N. Winn, Jon M. Jenkins, R. Paul Butler, David Charbonneau, Kevin I. Collins, Jeffrey D. Crane, Tianjun Gan, Coel HellierSteve B. Howell, Jonathan Irwin, Andrew W. Mann, Ali Ramadhan, Stephen A. Shectman, Johanna K. Teske, Samuel W. Yee, Ismael Mireles, Elisa V. Quintana, Peter Tenenbaum, Guillermo Torres, Elise Furlan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Populating the exoplanet mass-radius diagram in order to identify the underlying relationship that governs planet composition is driving an interdisciplinary effort within the exoplanet community. The discovery of hot super-Earths—a high-temperature, short-period subset of the super-Earth planet population—has presented many unresolved questions concerning the formation, evolution, and composition of rocky planets. We report the discovery of a transiting, ultra-short-period hot super-Earth orbiting TOI-1075 (TIC351601843), a nearby (d = 61.4 pc) late-K/early-M-dwarf star, using data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. The newly discovered planet has a radius of 1.791 − 0.081 + 0.116 R and an orbital period of 0.605 day (14.5 hr). We precisely measure the planet mass to be 9.95 − 1.30 + 1.36 M using radial velocity measurements obtained with the Planet Finder Spectrograph mounted on the Magellan II telescope. Our radial velocity data also show a long-term trend, suggesting an additional planet in the system. While TOI-1075 b is expected to have a substantial H/He atmosphere given its size relative to the radius gap, its high density ( 9.32 − 1.85 + 2.05 g cm−3) is likely inconsistent with this possibility. We explore TOI-1075 b’s location relative to the M-dwarf radius valley, evaluate the planet’s prospects for atmospheric characterization, and discuss potential planet formation mechanisms. Studying the TOI-1075 system in the broader context of ultra-short-period planetary systems is necessary for testing planet formation and evolution theories and density-enhancing mechanisms and for future atmospheric and surface characterization studies via emission spectroscopy with the JWST.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number47
JournalAstronomical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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