The tilt aftereffect (TAE) is a visual illusion in which prolonged adaptation to an oriented stimulus causes shifts in subsequent perceived orientations. Historically, neural models of the TAE have explained it as the outcome of response suppression of neurons tuned to the adapting orientation. Recent physiological studies of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) have confirmed that such response suppression exists. However, it was also found that the preferred orientations of neurons shift away from the adapting orientation. Here we show that adding this second factor to a population coding model of V1 improves the correspondence between neurophysiological data and TAE measurements. According to our model, the shifts in preferred orientation have the opposite effect as response suppression, reducing the magnitude of the TAE.
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