Tight bounds for shared memory systems accessed by Byzantine processes

Noga Alon, Michael Merritt, Omer Reingold, Gadi Taubenfeld, Rebecca N. Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


We provide efficient constructions and tight bounds for shared memory systems accessed by n processes, up to t of which may exhibit Byzantine failures, in a model previously explored by Malkhi et al. [21]. We show that sticky bits are universal in the Byzantine failure model for n ≥ 3t + 1, an improvement over the previous result requiring n ≥ (2t + 1)(t + 1). Our result follows from a new strong consensus construction that uses sticky bits and tolerates t Byzantine failures among n processes for any n ≥ 3t + 1, the best possible bound on n for strong consensus. We also present tight bounds on the efficiency of implementations of strong consensus objects from sticky bits and similar primitive objects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)99-109
Number of pages11
JournalDistributed Computing
Issue number2
StatePublished - Nov 2005
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


  • Byzantine agreement
  • Distributed consensus
  • Shared memory
  • Sticky bits


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