Thermodynamics of densification of powder compact

Yoshihiro Hirata, Akihiro Hara, Ilhan A. Aksay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


This paper established a necessary condition for the sintering of powder compacts by examining the total free energy balance in terms of the particle size, neck size and contact number. The thermodynamic analysis of the proposed model clarifies the relation of shrinkage (q) of powder compact-contact angle (φ{symbol})-relative density at a given dihedral angle (φ{symbol}e) of a grain boundary. Faster densification proceeds in the region with a larger coordination number (n) of particles at a small q value. A large shrinkage is needed to eliminate the large pores formed in the structure of small n value. Full density can be achieved in the range of 117° < φ{symbol}e < φ{symbol}c, where φ{symbol}c is the critical dihedral angle allowing the shrinkage required for full densification. The derived concepts are effective to interpret the densification of hierarchical particle clusters. The relative density of ceria powder compact approached nonlinearly unity with decreasing ratio of pore size (r(P)) to grain size (r) and this tendency was well expressed by the present densification model. The influence of grain growth on the densification of powder compact and size of large pore isolated in a dense matrix are also quantitatively discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2667-2674
Number of pages8
JournalCeramics International
Issue number7
StatePublished - Sep 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


  • A. Sintering
  • B. Grain size
  • B. Porosity
  • D. CeO


Dive into the research topics of 'Thermodynamics of densification of powder compact'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this