Thermodynamic Definitions of Temperature and Kappa and Introduction of the Entropy Defect

George Livadiotis, David J. McComas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


This paper develops explicit and consistent definitions of the independent thermodynamic properties of temperature and the kappa index within the framework of nonextensive statistical mechanics and shows their connection with the formalism of kappa distributions. By defining the “entropy defect” in the composition of a system, we show how the nonextensive entropy of systems with correlations differs from the sum of the entropies of their constituents of these systems. A system is composed extensively when its elementary subsystems are independent, interacting with no correlations; this leads to an extensive system entropy, which is simply the sum of the subsystem entropies. In contrast, a system is composed nonextensively when its elementary subsystems are connected through long-range interactions that produce correlations. This leads to an entropy defect that quantifies the missing entropy, analogous to the mass defect that quantifies the mass (energy) associated with assembling subatomic particles. We develop thermodynamic definitions of kappa and temperature that connect with the corresponding kinetic definitions originated from kappa distributions. Finally, we show that the entropy of a system, composed by a number of subsystems with correlations, is determined using both discrete and continuous descriptions, and find: (i) the resulted entropic form expressed in terms of thermodynamic parameters; (ii) an optimal relationship between kappa and temperature; and (iii) the correlation coefficient to be inversely proportional to the temperature logarithm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1683
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Information Systems
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Mathematical Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


  • Kappa distributions
  • Nonextensive entropy
  • Temperature
  • Temperature definition


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