Thermalization of Interacting Quasi-One-Dimensional Systems

Miłosz Panfil, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Robert M. Konik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Many experimentally relevant systems are quasi-one-dimensional, consisting of nearly decoupled chains. In these systems, there is a natural separation of scales between the strong intrachain interactions and the weak interchain coupling. When the intrachain interactions are integrable, weak interchain couplings play a crucial part in thermalizing the system. Here, we develop a Boltzmann-equation formalism involving a collision integral that is asymptotically exact for any interacting integrable system, and apply it to develop a quantitative theory of relaxation in coupled Bose gases in the experimentally relevant Newton's cradle setup. We find that relaxation involves a broad spectrum of timescales. We provide evidence that the Markov process governing relaxation at late times is gapless; thus, the approach to equilibrium is generally nonexponential, even for spatially uniform perturbations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number030401
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 20 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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