Theory of electromagnetic wave frequency upconversion in dynamic media

Kenan Qu, Qing Jia, Matthew R. Edwards, Nathaniel J. Fisch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Frequency upconversion of an electromagnetic wave can occur in ionized plasma with decreasing electric permittivity and in split-ring resonator-structure metamaterials with decreasing magnetic permeability. We develop a general theory to describe the evolution of the wave frequency, amplitude, and energy density in homogeneous media with a temporally decreasing refractive index. We find that upconversion of the wave frequency is necessarily accompanied by partitioning of the wave energy into low-frequency modes, which sets an upper limit on the energy conversion efficiency. The efficiency limits are obtained for both varying permittivity and varying permeability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number023202
JournalPhysical Review E
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 9 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Statistics and Probability


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