The use of hydroxyapatite as a new inorganic consolidant for damaged carbonate stones

Enrico Sassoni, Sonia Naidu, George W. Scherer

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194 Scopus citations


The feasibility and the effectiveness of using hydroxyapatite (HAP) formed by reacting limestone with a solution of diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP) in mild conditions, as a consolidant for carbonate stones were investigated. Firstly, a novel method for predamaging limestone was developed. Then, the effects of DAP solution concentration and reaction duration were evaluated to define the best treatment conditions, and the strengthening effect was evaluated on artificially damaged Indiana Limestone samples. Treated samples exhibit a significant increase in the dynamic elastic modulus and tensile strength, which is attributed to microcrack reduction and pore filling consequent to formation of calcium phosphate phases at grain boundaries, as assessed by SEM/EDS and ESEM/EBSD. Consequent to a slight reduction of coarser pores, as revealed by MIP, the sorptivity of treated samples is only slightly reduced, so that water and water vapor exchanges with the environment are not significantly blocked.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)346-355
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cultural Heritage
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • General Economics, Econometrics and Finance
  • Archaeology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Conservation
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)


  • Carbonate stones
  • Consolidation
  • Dynamic elastic modulus
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Tensile strength


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