### Abstract

The proof of the existence of the thermodynamic limit for electrons and nuclei interacting via the Coulomb potential, was accomplished decades ago in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, . This result did not take account of interactions caused by magnetic fields, however, (the spin-spin interaction, in particular) or of the quantized nature of the electromagnetic field. Recent progress has made it possible to undertake such a proof in the context of non-relativistic QED. This paper contains one part of such a proof by giving a lower bound to the free energy that is proportional to the number of particles and which takes account of the fact that the field, unlike the particles, is never confined to a finite volume. In the earlier proof the lower bound was a 'two line' corollary of the 'stability of matter'. In QED the proof is much more complicated.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 675-695 |

Number of pages | 21 |

Journal | Communications In Mathematical Physics |

Volume | 258 |

Issue number | 3 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Sep 1 2005 |

### All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Mathematical Physics
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics