The Simons Observatory: Large-Scale Characterization of 90/150 GHz TES Detector Modules

Daniel Dutcher, Shannon M. Duff, John C. Groh, Erin Healy, Johannes Hubmayr, Bradley R. Johnson, Dante Jones, Ben Keller, Lawrence T. Lin, Michael J. Link, Tammy J. Lucas, Samuel Morgan, Yudai Seino, Rita F. Sonka, Suzanne T. Staggs, Yuhan Wang, Kaiwen Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The Simons Observatory (SO) is a cosmic microwave background instrumentation suite being deployed in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. The telescopes within SO use three types of dichroic transition-edge sensor (TES) detector arrays, with the 90 and 150 GHz Mid-Frequency (MF) arrays containing 65% of the approximately 68,000 detectors in the first phase of SO. All of the 26 required MF detector arrays have now been fabricated, packaged into detector modules, and tested in laboratory cryostats. Across all modules, we find an average operable detector yield of 84% and median saturation powers of (2.8, 8.0) pW with interquartile ranges of (1, 2) pW at (90, 150) GHz, respectively, falling within their targeted ranges. We measure TES normal resistances and superconducting transition temperatures on each detector wafer to be uniform within 3%, with overall central values of 7.5 mΩ and 165 mK, respectively. Results on time constants, optical efficiency, and noise performance are also presented and are consistent with achieving instrument sensitivity forecasts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)247-255
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Low Temperature Physics
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Feb 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


  • Bolometer
  • CMB
  • Instrumentation
  • TES


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