The Role of Interfacial Reactions in Determining Plasma–Liquid Chemistry

Carly E. Anderson, Nico R. Cha, Alexander D. Lindsay, Douglas S. Clark, David B. Graves

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


In this work, we investigate the production of highly oxidative species in solutions exposed to a self-pulsed corona discharge in air. We examine how the properties of the target solution (pH, conductivity) and the discharge power affect the discharge stability and the production of H2O2. Indigo carmine, a common organic dye, is used as an indicator of oxidative strength and in particular, hydroxyl radical (OH·) production. The observed rate of indigo oxidation in contact with the discharge far exceeds that predicted from reactions based on concentrations of species measured in the bulk solution. The generation of H2O2 and the oxidation of indigo carmine indicate a high concentration of highly oxidizing species such as OH· at the plasma–liquid interface. These results indicate that reactions at the air plasma–liquid interface play a dominant role in species oxidation during direct non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1393-1415
Number of pages23
JournalPlasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


  • Corona discharge
  • Indigo carmine
  • Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP)
  • Plasma activated water (PAW)
  • Reactive oxygen species


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