Many bacteria produce siderophores to bind and take up Fe(III), an essential trace metal with extremely low solubility in oxygenated environments at circumneutral pH. The purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris str. CGA009 is a metabolically versatile model organism with high iron requirements that is able to grow under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Siderophore biosynthesis has been predicted by genomic analysis, however, siderophore structures were not identified. Here, we elucidate the structure of two novel siderophores from R. palustris: rhodopetrobactin A and B. Rhodopetrobactins are structural analogues of the known siderophore petrobactin in which the Fe chelating moieties are conserved, including two 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate and a citrate substructure. In the place of two spermidine linker groups in petrobactin, rhodopetrobactins contain two 4,4′-diaminodibutylamine groups of which one or both are acetylated at the central amine. We analyse siderophore production under different growth modes and show that rhodopetrobactins are produced in response to Fe limitation under aerobic as well as under anaerobic conditions. Evaluation of the chemical characteristics of rhodopetrobactins indicates that they are well suited to support Fe acquisition under variable oxygen and light conditions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics