The overarching framework of core-collapse supernova explosions as revealed by 3D FORNAX simulations

Adam Burrows, David Radice, David vartanyan, Hiroki Nagakura, M. Aaron Skinner, Joshua C. Dolence

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

166 Scopus citations


We have conducted 19 state-of-the-art 3D core-collapse supernova simulations spanning a broad range of progenitor masses. This is the largest collection of sophisticated 3D supernova simulations ever performed. We have found that while the majority of these models explode, not all do, and that even models in the middle of the available progenitor mass range may be less explodable. This does not mean that those models for which we did not witness explosion would not explode in Nature, but that they are less prone to explosion than others. One consequence is that the 'compactness' measure is not a metric for explodability. We find that lower-mass massive star progenitors likely experience lower-energy explosions, while the higher-mass massive stars likely experience higher-energy explosions. Moreover, most 3D explosions have a dominant dipole morphology, have a pinched, wasp-waist structure, and experience simultaneous accretion and explosion. We reproduce the general range of residual neutron-star masses inferred for the galactic neutron-star population. The most massive progenitor models, however, in particular vis à vis explosion energy, need to be continued for longer physical times to asymptote to their final states. We find that while the majority of the inner ejecta have Ye = 0.5, there is a substantial proton-rich tail. This result has important implications for the nucleosynthetic yields as a function of progenitor. Finally, we find that the non-exploding models eventually evolve into compact inner configurations that experience a quasi-periodic spiral SASI mode. We otherwise see little evidence of the SASI in the exploding models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2715-2735
Number of pages21
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Supernovae: general


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