The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2-LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations

Jeffrey L. Anderson, V. Balaji, Anthony J. Broccoli, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Keith W. Dixon, Leo J. Donner, Krista A. Dunne, Stuart M. Freidenreich, Stephen T. Garner, Richard G. Gudgel, C. T. Gordon, Isaac M. Held, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Paul J. Kushner, Amy R. Langenhost, Ngar Cheung LauZhi Liang, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C.D. Milly, Mary J. Nath, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, Brian J. Soden, William F. Stern, Lori A. Thompson, R. John Wilson, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman

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Abstract

The configuration and performance of a new global atmosphere and land model for climate research developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are presented. The atmosphere model, known as AM2, includes a new gridpoint dynamical core, a prognostic cloud scheme, and a multispecies aerosol climatology, as well as components from previous models used at GFDL. The land model, known as LM2, includes soil sensible and latent heat storage, groundwater storage, and stomatal resistance. The performance of the coupled model AM2-LM2 is evaluated with a series of prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) simulations. Particular focus is given to the model's climatology and the characteristics of interannual variability related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). One AM2-LM2 integration was perfor med according to the prescriptions of the second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II) and data were submitted to the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI). Particular strengths of AM2-LM2, as judged by comparison to other models participating in AMIP II, include its circulation and distributions of precipitation. Prominent problems of AM2-LM2 include a cold bias to surface and tropospheric temperatures, weak tropical cyclone activity, and weak tropical intraseasonal activity associated with the Madden-Julian oscillation. An ensemble of 10 AM2-LM 2 integrations with observed SSTs for the second half of the twentieth century permits a statistically reliable assessment of the model's response to ENSO. In general, AM2-LM2 produces a realistic simulation of the anomalies in tropical precipitation and extratropical circulation that are associated with ENSO.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4641-4673
Number of pages33
JournalJournal of Climate
Volume17
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science

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    Anderson, J. L., Balaji, V., Broccoli, A. J., Cooke, W. F., Delworth, T. L., Dixon, K. W., Donner, L. J., Dunne, K. A., Freidenreich, S. M., Garner, S. T., Gudgel, R. G., Gordon, C. T., Held, I. M., Hemler, R. S., Horowitz, L. W., Klein, S. A., Knutson, T. R., Kushner, P. J., Langenhost, A. R., ... Wyman, B. L. (2004). The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2-LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations. Journal of Climate, 17(24), 4641-4673. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-3223.1