The GAPS programme at TNG: XL. A puffy and warm Neptune-sized planet and an outer Neptune-mass candidate orbiting the solar-Type star TOI-1422

L. Naponiello, L. Mancini, M. Damasso, A. S. Bonomo, A. Sozzetti, D. Nardiello, K. Biazzo, R. G. Stognone, J. Lillo-Box, A. F. Lanza, E. Poretti, J. J. Lissauer, L. Zeng, A. Bieryla, G. Hebrard, M. Basilicata, S. Benatti, A. Bignamini, F. Borsa, R. ClaudiR. Cosentino, E. Covino, A. De Gurtubai, X. Delfosse, S. Desidera, D. Dragomir, J. D. Eastman, Z. Essack, A. F.M. Fiorenzano, P. Giacobbe, A. Harutyunyan, N. Heidari, C. Hellier, J. M. Jenkins, C. Knapic, P. C. Konig, D. W. Latham, A. Magazzu, A. Maggio, J. Maldonado, G. Micela, E. Molinari, M. Molinaro, E. H. Morgan, C. Moutou, V. Nascimbeni, E. Pace, I. Pagano, M. Pedani, G. Piotto, M. Pinamonti, E. V. Quintana, M. Rainer, G. R. Ricker, S. Seager, J. D. Twicken, R. Vanderspek, J. N. Winn

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4 Scopus citations


Context. Neptunes represent one of the main types of exoplanets and have chemical-physical characteristics halfway between rocky and gas giant planets. Therefore, their characterization is important for understanding and constraining both the formation mechanisms and the evolution patterns of planets. Aims. We investigate the exoplanet candidate TOI-1422 b, which was discovered by the TESS space telescope around the high proper-motion G2 V star TOI-1422 (V = 10.6 mag), 155 pc away, with the primary goal of confirming its planetary nature and characterising its properties. Methods. We monitored TOI-1422 with the HARPS-N spectrograph for 1.5 yr to precisely quantify its radial velocity (RV) variation. We analyse these RV measurements jointly with TESS photometry and check for blended companions through high-spatial resolution images using the AstraLux instrument. Results. We estimate that the parent star has a radius of R = 1.0190.013+0.014 Ra, and a mass of M = 1.0190.013+0.014 Ma. Our analysis confirms the planetary nature of TOI-1422 b and also suggests the presence of a Neptune-mass planet on a more distant orbit, the candidate TOI-1422 c, which is not detected in TESS light curves. The inner planet, TOI-1422 b, orbits on a period of Pb = 12.9972 ± 0.0006 days and has an equilibrium temperature of Teq,b = 867 ± 17 K. With a radius of Rb = 3.960.11+0.13 R, a mass of Mb = 9.02.0+2.3 M and, consequently, a density of ρb = 0.7950.235+0.290g cm3, it can be considered a warm Neptune-sized planet. Compared to other exoplanets of a similar mass range, TOI-1422 b is among the most inflated, and we expect this planet to have an extensive gaseous envelope that surrounds a core with a mass fraction around 10% 25% of the total mass of the planet. The outer non-Transiting planet candidate, TOI-1422 c, has an orbital period of Pc = 29.290.20+0.21 days, a minimum mass, Mcsin i, of 11.12.3+2.6 M, an equilibrium temperature of Teq,c = 661 ± 13 K and, therefore, if confirmed, could be considered as another warm Neptune.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA8
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Methods: data analysis
  • Planetary systems
  • Stars: individual: TOI-1422
  • Techniques: photometric
  • Techniques: radial velocities
  • Techniques: spectroscopic


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