For more than thirty years, the capability of the integrated circuit (IC) - whether it is memory size, processor speed, or cost per transistor - has increased at an exponential rate. This capability increase was achieved through a steady stream of technical innovations in physical sciences, design techniques, and manufacturing methods. However, serious challenges to continued scaling, such as the limits of optical lithography and the complexity of wiring, loom on the horizon. This paper explores the direction in which IC technology is headed, highlights potential roadblocks and possible solutions, and discusses some of the physical considerations that could determine the ultimate limits of integration.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering