The flashiest watersheds in the contiguous United States

Brianne K. Smith, James A. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


The authors identify the flashiest watersheds in the contiguous United States based on frequency of discharge peaks exceeding 1 m3 s-1 km-2. The entire digitized record of USGS instantaneous discharge data is used for all stream gauging stations with over 10 years of data. Using the 1 m3 s-1 km-2 threshold, the flashiest basins in the contiguous United States are located in urban areas along a swath of states from the south-central United States to the mid-Atlantic and in mountainous areas of the West Coast, especially the Pacific Northwest. The authors focus on small watersheds to identify the flashiest cities and states across the country and find Tulsa, Oklahoma; Baltimore, Maryland; and St. Louis, Missouri, to be the flashiest cities in the contiguous United States. Thunderstorms are major agents for peak-over-threshold flood events east of the Rocky Mountains, and tropical cyclones play a secondary role, especially in the Southeast. West Coast flood events are associated with winter storms. Flooding west of and within the Rockies is linked to steeply sloped terrain and compact watersheds. East of the Rockies, urban areas dominate flashy watersheds. The authors find that watersheds northeast (downwind) of city centers are flashier than other urban watersheds, consistent with the downwind maximum in rainfall found in many urban regions. They examine anomalous flood response in the Illinois-Missouri region; St. Louis is among the flashiest cities in the United States, while Chicago is among the least flashy. Their flashiness map is compared with other measures of flooding, including flood damage and National Weather Service flash flood reports.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2365-2381
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Hydrometeorology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science


  • Applications
  • Atm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomena
  • Flood events
  • Flood events
  • Geographic location/entity
  • Hydrology
  • Hydrometeorology
  • Physical Meteorology and Climatology
  • Urban meteorology
  • Watersheds


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