The innate and adaptive immune responses involve the stimulation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factors through the Lys 63 (K63)-linked ubiquitylation of specific components of NF-κB signaling pathways. We found that ubiquitylated components of the NF-κB pathway accumulated on the cytosolic leaflet of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane after the engagement of cell-surface, proinflammatory cytokine receptors or antigen receptors. Through mass spectrometric analysis, we found that the ERanchored protein metadherin (MTDH) was a partner for these ubiquitylated activators of NF-κB and that it directly bound to K 63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Knockdown of MTDH inhibited the accumulation of ubiquitylated NF-κB signaling components at the ER, reduced the extent of NF-κB activation, and decreased the amount of proinflammatory cytokines produced. Our observations highlight an unexpected facet of the ER as a key subcellular gateway for NF-κB activation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology