The empirics of firm heterogeneity and international trade

Andrew B. Bernard, J. Bradford Jensen, Stephen J. Redding, Peter K. Schott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

316 Scopus citations


This article reviews the empirical evidence on firm heterogeneity in international trade. A first wave of empirical findings from microdata on plants and firms proposed challenges for existing models of international trade and inspired the development of new theories emphasizing firm heterogeneity. Subsequent empirical research has examined additional predictions of these theories and explored other dimensions of the data not originally captured by them. These other dimensions include multiproduct firms, offshoring, intrafirm trade and firm export market dynamics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)283-313
Number of pages31
JournalAnnual Review of Economics
StatePublished - Jul 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Economics and Econometrics


  • exporting
  • heterogeneous firms
  • importing
  • productivity


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