The effect of residual palladium on the performance of organic electrochemical transistors

Sophie Griggs, Adam Marks, Dilara Meli, Gonzague Rebetez, Olivier Bardagot, Bryan D. Paulsen, Hu Chen, Karrie Weaver, Mohamad I. Nugraha, Emily A. Schafer, Joshua Tropp, Catherine M. Aitchison, Thomas D. Anthopoulos, Natalie Banerji, Jonathan Rivnay, Iain McCulloch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Organic electrochemical transistors are a promising technology for bioelectronic devices, with applications in neuromorphic computing and healthcare. The active component enabling an organic electrochemical transistor is the organic mixed ionic-electronic conductor whose optimization is critical for realizing high-performing devices. In this study, the influence of purity and molecular weight is examined for a p-type polythiophene and an n-type naphthalene diimide-based polymer in improving the performance and safety of organic electrochemical transistors. Our preparative GPC purification reduced the Pd content in the polymers and improved their organic electrochemical transistor mobility by ~60% and 80% for the p- and n-type materials, respectively. These findings demonstrate the paramount importance of removing residual Pd, which was concluded to be more critical than optimization of a polymer’s molecular weight, to improve organic electrochemical transistor performance and that there is readily available improvement in performance and stability of many of the reported organic mixed ionic-electronic conductors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7964
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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