The effect of density zoning on racial segregation in U.S. urban areas

Jonathan Rothwell, Douglas S. Massey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

172 Scopus citations


The authors argue that anti-density zoning increases Black residential segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas by reducing the quantity of affordable housing in White jurisdictions. Drawing on census data and local regulatory indicators compiled by Pendall, the authors estimate a series of regression models to measure the effect of maximum density zoning on Black segregation. Results estimated using ordinary least squares indicate a strong and significant cross-sectional relationship between low-density zoning and racial segregation, even after controlling for other zoning policies and a variety of metropolitan characteristics, a relationship that persists under two-stage least squares estimation. Both estimation strategies also suggest that anti-density zoning inhibits desegregation over time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)779-806
Number of pages28
JournalUrban Affairs Review
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Urban Studies


  • African-American
  • Housing
  • Race
  • Segregation
  • Zoning


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