The detection and characterization of a nontransiting planet by transit timing variations

David Nesvorný, David M. Kipping, Lars A. Buchhave, Gáspár Á Bakos, Joel Hartman, Allan R. Schmitt

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87 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Kepler mission is monitoring the brightness of ∼150,000 stars, searching for evidence of planetary transits. As part of the Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler (HEK) project, we report a planetary system with two confirmed planets and one candidate planet discovered with the publicly available data for KOI-872. Planet b transits the host star with a period Pb = 33.6 days and exhibits large transit timing variations indicative of a perturber. Dynamical modeling uniquely detects an outer nontransiting planet c near the 5:3 resonance (Pc = 57.0 days) with a mass 0.37 times that of Jupiter. Transits of a third planetary candidate are also found: a 1.7-Earth radius super-Earth with a 6.8-day period. Our analysis indicates a system with nearly coplanar and circular orbits, reminiscent of the orderly arrangement within the solar system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1133-1136
Number of pages4
JournalScience
Volume336
Issue number6085
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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    Nesvorný, D., Kipping, D. M., Buchhave, L. A., Bakos, G. Á., Hartman, J., & Schmitt, A. R. (2012). The detection and characterization of a nontransiting planet by transit timing variations. Science, 336(6085), 1133-1136. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1221141