The Characteristic Gluing Problem for the Einstein Vacuum Equations: Linear and Nonlinear Analysis

Stefanos Aretakis, Stefan Czimek, Igor Rodnianski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This is the second paper in a series of papers addressing the characteristic gluing problem for the Einstein vacuum equations. We solve the codimension-10 characteristic gluing problem for characteristic data which are close to the Minkowski data. We derive an infinite-dimensional space of gauge-dependent charges and a 10-dimensional space of gauge-invariant charges that are conserved by the linearized null constraint equations and act as obstructions to the gluing problem. The gauge-dependent charges can be matched by applying angular and transversal gauge transformations of the characteristic data. By making use of a special hierarchy of radial weights of the null constraint equations, we construct the null lapse function and the conformal geometry of the characteristic hypersurface, and we show that the aforementioned charges are in fact the only obstructions to the gluing problem. Modulo the gauge-invariant charges, the resulting solution of the null constraint equations is Cm+2 for any specified integer m≥0 in the tangential directions and C2 in the transversal directions to the characteristic hypersurface. We also show that higher-order (in all directions) gluing is possible along bifurcated characteristic hypersurfaces (modulo the gauge-invariant charges).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3081-3205
Number of pages125
JournalAnnales Henri Poincare
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Mathematical Physics


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