The brain-to-pancreatic islet neuronal map reveals differential glucose regulation from distinct hypothalamic regions

Wilfredo Rosario, Inderroop Singh, Arnaud Wautlet, Christa Patterson, Jonathan Flak, Thomas C. Becker, Almas Ali, Natalia Tamarina, Louis H. Philipson, Lynn W. Enquist, Martin G. Myers, Christopher J. Rhodes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Scopus citations


The brain influences glucose homeostasis, partly by supplemental control over insulin and glucagon secretion. Without this central regulation, diabetes and its complications can ensue. Yet, the neuronal network linking to pancreatic islets has never been fully mapped. Here, we refine this map using pseudorabies virus (PRV) retrograde tracing, indicating that the pancreatic islets are innervated by efferent circuits that emanate from the hypothalamus. We found that the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) significantly overlap PRV and the physiological glucose-sensing enzyme glucokinase. Then, experimentally lowering glucose sensing, specifically in the ARC, resulted in glucose intolerance due to deficient insulin secretion and no significant effect in the VMN, but in the LHA it resulted in a lowering of the glucose threshold that improved glucose tolerance and/or improved insulin sensitivity, with an exaggerated counter-regulatory response for glucagon secretion. No significant effect on insulin sensitivity or metabolic homeostasis was noted. Thus, these data reveal novel direct neuronal effects on pancreatic islets and also render a functional validation of the brain-toislet neuronal map. They also demonstrate that distinct regions of the hypothalamus differentially control insulin and glucagon secretion, potentially in partnership to help maintain glucose homeostasis and guard against hypoglycemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2711-2723
Number of pages13
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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