The BIAS Map: Behaviors From Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes

Amy J.C. Cuddy, Susan T. Fiske, Peter Glick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1366 Scopus citations


In the present research, consisting of 2 correlational studies (N = 616) including a representative U.S. sample and 2 experiments (N = 350), the authors investigated how stereotypes and emotions shape behavioral tendencies toward groups, offering convergent support for the behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes (BIAS) map framework. Warmth stereotypes determine active behavioral tendencies, attenuating active harm (harassing) and eliciting active facilitation (helping). Competence stereotypes determine passive behavioral tendencies, attenuating passive harm (neglecting) and eliciting passive facilitation (associating). Admired groups (warm, competent) elicit both facilitation tendencies; hated groups (cold, incompetent) elicit both harm tendencies. Envied groups (competent, cold) elicit passive facilitation but active harm; pitied groups (warm, incompetent) elicit active facilitation but passive harm. Emotions predict behavioral tendencies more strongly than stereotypes do and usually mediate stereotype-to-behavioral-tendency links.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)631-648
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of personality and social psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


  • competence
  • discrimination
  • emotions
  • stereotypes
  • warmth


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