Testing the Surge: Why Did Violence Decline in Iraq in 2007?

Stephen Biddle, Jeffrey A. Friedman, Jacob N. Shapiro

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


From 2004 to mid-2007, Iraq was extremely violent. Iraqi civilian fatalities averaged more than 1,500 a month by August 2006; by late fall the US military was suffering a monthly toll of almost 100 dead and 700 wounded.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationRethinking Political Violence
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Number of pages31
StatePublished - 2014

Publication series

NameRethinking Political Violence
ISSN (Print)2752-8588
ISSN (Electronic)2752-8596

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Political Science and International Relations


  • Audio File
  • Average Violence
  • Civilian Casualty
  • Critical Perspective
  • Iraq Body Count


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