Gravitational lensing provides a strict test of cosmogonic models because it is directly sensitive to mass inhomogeneities. Detailed numerical propagation of light rays through a universe that has a distribution of inhomogeneities derived from the standard CDM (cold dark matter) scenario, with the aid of massive, fully nonlinear computer simulations, was used to test the model. It predicts that more widely split quasar images should have been seen than were actually found. These and other inconsistencies rule out the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized CDM model with density parameter Ω=1 and the Hubble constant (H0)=50 kilometers second-1 megaparsec-1; but variants of this model might be constructed, which could pass the stringent tests provided by strong gravitational lensing.
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