Terahertz integrated electronic and hybrid electronic–photonic systems

Kaushik Sengupta, Tadao Nagatsuma, Daniel M. Mittleman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

458 Scopus citations


The field of terahertz integrated technology has undergone significant development in the past ten years. This has included work on different substrate technologies such as III–V semiconductors and silicon, work on field-effect transistor devices and heterojunction bipolar devices, and work on both fully electronic and hybrid electronic–photonic systems. While approaches in electronic and photonics can often seem distinct, techniques have blended in the terahertz frequency range and many emerging systems can be classified as photonics-inspired or hybrid. Here, we review the development of terahertz integrated electronic and hybrid electronic–photonic systems, examining, in particular, advances that deliver important functionalities for applications in communication, sensing and imaging. Many of the advances in integrated systems have emerged, not from improvements in single devices, but rather from new architectures that are multifunctional and reconfigurable and break the trade-offs of classical approaches to electronic system design. We thus focus on these approaches to capture the diversity of techniques and methodologies in the field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)622-635
Number of pages14
JournalNature Electronics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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