Terahertz Beam Steering: from Fundamentals to Applications

Yasuaki Monnai, Xuyang Lu, Kaushik Sengupta

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Free-space transmission of terahertz (THz) waves opens great opportunities for wireless applications including sensing and communication in the 6G era and beyond. Owing to their wider bandwidths and shorter wavelengths, the use of THz waves enhances information capacity and spatial resolution while downsizing aperture sizes compared to microwaves. On the other hand, the shorter wavelengths of THz waves can involve severe path loss. To compensate for the path loss, directional transmission based on beam steering is indispensable. In this article, we review the development of THz beam steering, which has been a longstanding challenge as well as the generation of high-power THz waves. While the use of active or passive phased arrays is the predominantly utilized approach to implement beam steering, other approaches based on variable diffractive structures and frequency dispersive structures offer low-cost alternatives. We also emphasize that application-driven system design approaches, in which THz beam steering is tightly coupled to signal processing, have been emerging to overcome hardware limitations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-211
Number of pages43
JournalJournal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Apr 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiation
  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Beam steering
  • Diffraction gratings
  • Distributed index lenses
  • Leaky-wave antennas
  • Phase shifters
  • Phased arrays
  • Terahertz


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